Alfierijeva Merope u Splitu 18??.
l art, Edition originale
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Habit of Dorilas in the Tragedy of Merope. The New York Public Library. Heteronympha Merope George Arents Collection. Heteronympha merope George Arents Collection. Miller, architect The Miriam and Ira D. La Merope : tragedia Getty Research Institute. It would seem that, unlike his grandfather, who had begun with profane and ended with religious verse. His book of Louvores da Virgem Nossa Se? No trace or ' Cronica del Ret D. Diniz, ed. This interesting passage is not included in those quoted in C.
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It does not imply that the poems were exclusively religious. Can the book three or four fingers in height have been the Cane, da Ajuda millimetres from which a section of sacred poems may have been torn? If so the letters Rey Do Denis C. Identical phrases occur. At the Escorial he also examined an original manuscript of St. Augustine ibid. His concise definition of a bore : falou viuiV e mal C. Of his illegitimate sons, besides D. Afonso Sanchez, D.
It was as a prose-writer and editor of the Livro de Linhagens that he worthily carried on the literary tradition of King Dinis.
Merope (Greek myth)
The next two centuries redressed the balance in the favour of prose. The victory of Aljubarrota made it possible to carry on the national work begun by King Dinis — the preparation of Portugal's resources for a high destiny. In this constructive process literature was not forgotten, and indeed its deliberate encouragement, as though it were an industry or a pine-forest, may account for the fact that it consisted mainly of prose — chronicles, numerous translations from Latin, Spanish, and other languages, works of religious or practical import.
Aclolpho Coelho, A Lingua Portugmza , p. King Dinis had encouraged translation into Portugut'Sc, and among other works his grandfather King Alfonso the Lcarncd's Cronica Cwneral was translated by his order. The only edition that we have, llistoria Geral de Hespanha , is cut short in the reign of King Ramiro cap. The first ' O ' of the preface in the manuscript contains the king in purple robe and crown of gold, pen in hand, with a book before him.
Thus we have thirteenth- ov fourteenth-century fragments oi the rules of S.
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Bento, Fragmoilos lie uma vcrsdo a iliga da regra dc S. Hoilo, with its traces of a Latin original e. The translation is close ; the style foreshadows that of the Leal Conselheiro. The importance of these and other fragmentary versions of the Bible, in which there can rarely be a doubt as to the meaning of the words, is obvious.
A Lenda dos Santos Barlaam e Josaphat is perhaps a little later end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. E persegujo as pias filhas de finees que Ihe aujd odio e o querid desherdar. E foy CO jaasson o que adusse o velloso dourado da ylha de colcos. The Vida de Santo Aleixo also exists in two codices belonging to the middle and beginning of the fifteenth century, and Dr. Esteves Pereira, who pub- lished the latter, considers that the variants point to an earlier manuscript of the beginning of the fourteenth or end of the thirteenth century.
To about the same period i4th-i5th c. Both literature and philology are interested in the early fifteenth-century work printed by Dr. The earliest entry of the Cronica Breve do Archivo Nacional is dated , and both it and the Crontcas Breves e memorias avulsas de Santa Cruz de Coimbra are laconic annals of the first kings of Portugal, a few lines covering a whole reign. The Livro da Noa de Santa Cruz de Coimbra is an extract from the Livro das Heras of the same convent, and is, as the latter title indicates, a similar simple chronicle of events by years.
From to the end they are exclusively Portuguese. The Cronica da Ordem dos Frades Menores is a fifteenth- century Portuguese translation of a fourteenth-century Latin chronicle, and has been carefully edited by Dr. Tello 15th c , and the Vida de S. Isabel, the Queen-consort of King Dinis earlier 15th c , are ' historical ' biographies ' Cf. Por este enxemplo este doutor nos mostra, or este poeta nos da ensinamento. Evora, Of the four that have come down to us the Livro Velho is a jejune family register iith-i4th c. The manuscript of the third [0 Nobiliario do Collegio dos Nobres was bound up with the Cancioneiro da Ajiida, and together with the fourth, Nobi- liario do Conde D.
Pedro, represents the lost original of the Liin-o de Linhagens of D. Pedro, Conde de Barcellos Pedro em seu livro is as natural as the mention of Innocencio da Silva in a later volume of his great dictionary.
But it was this son of King Dinis who with infinite diligence searched for documents far and wide, had recourse to the writings of King Alfonso X and others, and spared no pains to give the work ' The Cronica Troy ana, edited in by the Spanish scholar and patient investigator D.
Certainly the Livro de Lmhagens is a vast catalogue of names, with at most a brief note after the name, as ' he was a good priest ' or ' a very good poet ' ; but it also gives succinct stories of the Kings of the Earth from Adam, including Priam, Alexander, Julius Caesar, and the early kings of Portugal, and it contains rare but charming intervals, green oases of legend and anecdote, such as the tale of King Lear with its happy ending, or the account of King Ramiro going to see his wife, who was a captive of the Moors.
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Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos, it has rendered invaluable service in reconstructing the lives of the thirteenth-century poets. In the fourteenth century many in Portugal were baptized with the name of Lancelot, Tristan, and Percival ; and Nun' Alvarez chose Galahad for his model, and came as near realizing his ideal as may be given to mortal man. In Gil Vicente's time the name Percival had already descended to the sphere of the peasants : as Passival i.
Whether they were incorporated in the Cancioneiro from a Portuguese 'I'ristam earlier than the Spanish version ? It was but natural that a Celtic people living by the sea, delighting in vague legends and in foreign novelties, should have felt drawn towards these misty tales of love and wandering adventure, wliich carried them west as far as Cornwall and Ireland, and also East, through the search for the Holy Grail. It was natural that they should undergo their influence earlier and more strongly than their more direct and more national neighbours the Castilians, whose clear, definite descriptions in the twelfth-century Poema del Cid would send those legends drifting back to the dim regions of their birth.
Even to-day connexion with and sympathy for Ireland is far commoner in Galicia than in any other part of Spain. Unhappily, most of the early Portuguese versions of the Breton legends have been lost. The probability that these were written in Portuguese, not in Spanish, is increased by the survival of A Historia dos Cavalleiros da Mesa Redoiida c da Demanda do Santo Graall, as -yet only partially published from the manuscript in the Vienna Ilojbihliothck.
It was written probably in the fourteenth century, perhaps at the end of the thirteenth, although the Vienna manuscript is more recent and belongs to the fifteenth century, in which the work was referred to by the poet Rodriguez de la Camara. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Cancioneiro da Ajuda, ii. They arc called lais, layx C. Traces of French remain in its prose. The only others that we have in print are the Estorea de Vespeseano and the Livro de Josep ah Arimatia, the manuscript of which was discovered in the nineteenth century in the Torre do Tombo.
This, in the same way as the Demanda do Santo Graall, is a later i6th c. It was also known formerly as Destroygam de Jerusalem. Esteves Pereira believes that the Spanish edition is a retranslation from the Portuguese text originally translated from the Spanish. Tennyson's revival of the Arthurian legend in [England evoked no corresponding interest in Portugal in the nineteenth century, and the primitive and touching story as published in has left Sir Pcrcival in the very middle of an adventure for over a generation.
The descent of the Amadis romances from the noble ideal of chivalry of King Arthur's Court is obvious, but their exact pedigree, the date and nationality of the first ancestor of the Amadis who is still with us, has been the subject of some little contention. The problem of the date and authorship has become more fascinating than the book.
Henry Thomas holds the scales. The ground is thick with their. I, cap. A Portuguese Tristan may have existed, a Portuguese original of Tirant lo Blanch less probably, although Pedro Juan Martorell, who began it in the Valencian or Lemosin a ii de Giner de lany , declares that he had not only translated it from English into Portuguese but tnas encara "?
He dedicated it to the molt illustre Princep Ferdinand of Portugal. Very prob- ably the fame and origin of Amadis accounted for this 'English' original, as mythical as the Hungarian origin of Las Sergas de Esplandian, and for its alleged translation into Portuguese. The words in this Prdlogo of his Amadis. Braga, Questoes , p. Naturally we are curious to know what these antigiios originales were, but the question did not arise in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries : readers did not then concern themselves greatly with the origin and authorship of a book ; they were content to enjoy it.
Evidently Amadis was enjoyed both in Spain and Portugal. It is mentioned in the middle of the fourteenth century in the Spanish translation, by Johan Garcia de Castrogeriz, of Egidio Colonna's De regimine principum, at the very time, that is, when the Spanish poet and chronicler, Pero Lopez de Ayala , was reading Amadis in his youth. This is one of the most definite early references to Amadis, but of course reference to the book by a Spaniard does not necessarily imply that it was written in Spanish, and indeed some of the vaguer allusions may refer to a French or Anglo-French original.
The most frequent Spanish references occur in the Cancionero de Baena, which was compiled in the middle of the fifteenth century, at a period, that is, which the last Galician lyrics written in Spain connected with the time when all eyes were turned to Portuguese as the universal language of Peninsular lyrics. Because the Portuguese language was used throughout Spain in lyric poetry, it is sometimes argued as if the Portuguese had no prose, could only sing.
The more real division was not between verse and prose but between the Portuguese lyrical love literature and the Spanish epic battle literature, and the early romances of chivalry, although written in prose, belong essentially to the former. Whether this Poetica be contemporary 13th c. It was probably when he was a prisoner after the battle of Aljubarrota that he wrote the Rimado de Palacio, in which st. Migiul Ltite Fcrreir.
Iwor pelo campo Ircbclhando— written by his f.
We know that King Dinis encouraged not only lyric poetry but also translations into Portuguese prose, but all the early Portuguese prose works are assigned to the fourteenth, not the thirteenth century.