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Politically motivated reinforcement seeking: Reframing the selective exposure debate. Journal of Communication , — Holbert, R. A response to Bennett and Iyengar. Journal of Communication , 60 1 : 15— Iyengar, S. Red media, blue media: Evidence of ideological selectivity in media use. Journal of Communication , 59 1 : 19— Jamieson, K.

Echo chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the conservative media establishment. New York: Oxford University Press. Johnson, T.

Bibliographic Information

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication , 15 1 : 60— Kinder, D. Communication and politics in the age of information. Sears, L. Huddy, and R. Jervis Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

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Looking the other way: Selective exposure to attitude-consistent and counterattitudinal political information. Communication Research , 36 3 : — Kobayashi, T. Lang, A. The shifting paradigm of mass communication research. Boston, MA. Massey, K. The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Mendelsohn, M.

The magnification and minimization of social cleavages by the broadcast and narrowcast news media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research , 8 4 : — Metzger, M. The study of media effects in the era of Internet communication. Nabi and M.


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Oliver Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Mullainathan, S. The market for news. American Economic Review , — Napoli, P. Negroponte, N. Being digital. New York: Knopf. Neuman, W. The evolution of media effects theory: A six-stage model of cumulative research.

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The Problem of the Media U S Communication Politics in the Twenty First Century

Pariser, E. The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. New York: Penguin. Perloff, R. Mass communication research at the crossroads: Definitional issues and theoretical directions for mass and political communication scholarship in an age of online media.

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The problem of the media : U.S. communication politics in the twenty-first century

Americans spending more time following the news—Ideological news sources: Who watches and why. Post-broadcast democracy: How media choice increases inequality in political involvement and polarizes elections. New York: Cambridge University Press. Ranney, A. Broadcasting, narrowcasting, and politics. King Ed. Rosensteil, T. The state of the news media An annual report on American journalism. Project for Excellence in Journalism.

Sears, D. Selective exposure to information: A critical review. Public Opinion Quarterly , 31 2 : Slater, M. Reinforcing spirals: The mutual influence of media selectivity and media effects and their impact on individual behavior and social identity. Communication Theory , 17 3 : — Stroud, N. Political Communication , 24 4 : — Media use and political predispositions: Revisiting the concept of selective exposure.

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The Problem of the Media: U.S. Communication Politics in the Twenty-First Century

Sundar, S. Media effects 2. Sunstein, C. Going to extremes: How like minds unite and divide. Takeshita, T. Current critical problems in agenda-setting research. International Journal of Public Opinion Research , 18 3 : — Tewksbury, D.

The seeds of audience fragmentation: Specialization in the use of online news sites. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media , 49 3 : — Turow, J. Breaking up America: Advertisers and the new media world.

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Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Vogelstein, F. Wired Magazine , July Wallsten, K. Many sources, one message: Political blog links to online videos during the campaign. The situation in the former Central African Federation was not different from the rest of Africa. Here, the federating states had to break up under the pressure of their various nationalist leaders, and won their independence at different times under trying circumstances.

Nyasaland later Malawi , was the first to have gained independence from the British, under the Prime Ministership of Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda on July 6, In , Banda introduced a new constitution abolishing multi-party system, and consolidated all powers on himself as the executive president, a position he held from till he lost the first multi-party general elections in Meinhardt and Patel 3.

It was the coalition of opposition parties and democratic forces that defeated him in the election. The last in the former Central African Federation to gain independence is Zimbabwe. Since then, President Robert Mugabe turned the country into a one party state.